Naylor, R., Moretto, M., & Traverso, R. (2021). Cultural and creative industries in the face of COVID-19: an economic impact outlook. UNESCO.

No corner of our planet has been left untouched by the COVID-19 crisis. The virus itself has cost many lives, and the lockdowns experienced by many countries have destroyed jobs and businesses. At the time of writing, the social and economic impact of the pandemic in the medium and long term is difficult to foresee and measure. The cultural and creative industries (CCIs) have been among the first sectors to shut their doors and they will be among the last to reopen. Large parts of the sector depend on human congregation. As a result, venue and site-based activities, such as theatre, live music, fes-tivals, cinemas and museums, have been hit particularly hard. Around the world, the liveli-hoods of workers in different sectors have been profoundly affected by lockdowns and phys-ical distancing measures. The creative ecosystem, which combines a handful of multinational conglomerates with a multitude of freelance creatives and small and medium-sized enterprises, employs a significant proportion of these workers. Many people around the world depend on the cultural and creative industries for their livelihoods. Yet, the often precarious (or non-contractual) nature of their work has made artists and cultural professionals particu-larly vulnerable to the economic shocks that the pandemic has triggered

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